Tag: International Studies Lecture Series

U.S. State Department Intelligence Officer Discusses North Korea in Lawrence University International Studies Address

Against a backdrop of rising tensions and distrust between the United States and North Korea, fueled largely by North Korea’s ongoing nuclear weapons program, a U.S. intelligence officer offers an analytical peek inside the strange and secretive East Asian country in the final installment of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “Pariah States and Policy Responses.”

John Merrill, chief of the U.S. State Department’s Northeast Asia Division of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, presents “Reading North Korea” Tuesday, April 4 at 7 p.m. in the Wriston Art Center auditorium. The event is free and open to the public.

In his talk, Merrill will address the proposition that despite North Korea’s feisty, independent and highly nationalistic nature, the regime of Kim Jong-Il, in its own strange way, actually does want to establish a better relationship with the United States and pursue limited economic reform — so long as it believes it can do so without endangering its own social stability or national security.

Through an examination of North Korean’s history, culture and perceived national interests, Merrill will outline the complicated challenges the United States, others in the region and the international community as a whole face in dealing with North Korea and ending its nuclear program.

Merrill has written widely on foreign policy issues and is the author of numerous journal articles and three books, including 1989’s “Korea: The Peninsular Origins of the War,” in which he examines the local backdrop of the war, including large-scale civil unrest, insurgency and border clashes before the North Korean attack in June, 1950.

Appointed chief of the State Department’s Northeast Asia Division, Bureau of Intelligence and Research in 2000, Merrill also holds a professorial lecturer position at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. In addition, he has taught or held research positions at Georgetown University, George Washington University, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Lafayette College, Korea University in Seoul and the University of Delaware.

Merrill has been the recipient of many awards, including a Fulbright Fellowship, the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States Dissertation Award and the Director of Central Intelligence Exceptional Analyst Award.

He earned a bachelor’s degree in political science from Boston University, a master’s degree in East Asian Studies from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Delaware.

The “Pariah States and Policy Responses” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

Role of “People Power” as Democratic Accelerator Examined in Lawrence University International Studies Address

The power ordinary citizens can generate through mobilization and engagement of their opponents/oppressors and strategies that can fuel democratic reforms will be the focus of the third installment of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “Pariah States and Policy Responses.”

Jack DuVall, president and founding director of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict in Washington, D.C., presents “The Right to Rise Up: People Power and the Virtues of Civic Disruption” Wednesday, March 1 at 7 p.m. in the Wriston Art Center auditorium. The event is free and open to the public.

Countering Osama bin Laden’s assertion that “the walls of oppression and humiliation cannot be demolished except in a rain of bullets,” DuVall will explain how nonviolent, civilian-based strategies — using tactics such as strikes, boycotts, mass protests and civil disobedience — have won human rights and produced better democracies in nations as diverse as the Philippines, South Africa and Ukraine.

In his lecture, DuVall will focus on three key elements present in such struggles: unity among civic groups and activists who want an open and just society; planning, based on targeting the oppressor’s sources of power; and nonviolent discipline, which enables great numbers of ordinary citizens to participate and thus broaden the scope of the conflict.

Those dynamics of nonviolent struggle, according to DuVall, are frequently not seen or understood by most policymakers and media organizations.

“They only notice people power when mass protests occur,” says DuVall. “They invariably act as if every nonviolent campaign erupted spontaneously in the moment.”

The executive producer of the Emmy-nominated PBS series “A Force More Powerful” and co-author of its companion book of the same name, DuVall helped establish the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict in 2002. The ICNC disseminates educational tools and resources on a global basis that assist the development of nonviolent resistance.

Prior to co-founding the ICNC, DuVall spent 16 years as a television executive, producing non-fiction programming for The Learning Channel, Turner Broadcasting, as well as more than 30 other commercial television and non-profit organizations. He previously served as vice president of WETA Television/Radio and director of corporate relations of The University of Chicago.

A graduate of Colgate University, DuVall is a member of the board of sponsors of Atlanta’s Morehouse College and serves as an associate of the Centre for Justice and Peace Development at Massey University in New Zealand.

The series will conclude Tuesday, April 4 when John Merrill, chief of the Northeast Asia Division, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, U.S. State Department, discusses North Korea.

The “Pariah States and Policy Responses” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

“Duty to Prevent” Focus of Lawrence University International Studies Address

Lee Feinstein, deputy director of studies and senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, D.C., discusses the international community’s responsibility to prevent security as well as humanitarian disasters in the second installment of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “Pariah States and Policy Responses.”

Feinstein presents “A Duty to Prevent” Tuesday, Feb. 21 at 7 p.m. in the Wriston Art Center auditorium, 613 E. College Ave., Appleton. The event is free and open to the public.

With international concerns growing almost daily over the proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction by Iran, North Korea and the unprecedented threat posed by terrorists, Feinstein will examine the principle of a collective “duty to prevent.” The principle is aimed at nations that are run by rulers without internal checks on their power and designed to keep them from acquiring or using WMD, even if it means violating national sovereignty.

Feinstein argues the “duty to prevent” principle would complement the United Nations’ 2001 “The Responsibility to Protect” doctrine, which says U.N. member states have a responsibility to protect the lives, liberty and basic human rights of their citizens, and that if they fail or are unable to meet those obligations, the international community has a responsibility to step in.

The “duty to prevent” principle is based on three critical features: control both the proliferation of WMD and the people who possess them; emphasize prevention by calling on the international community to intervene early in order to be effective; and collective implementation through a global or regional organization.

An international lawyer who specializes in national security affairs, weapons of mass destruction and the United Nations, Feinstein served in the Clinton administration from 1994-2001, first as a senior advisor for peacekeeping policy in the office of the secretary of defense and later as principal director of policy planning under Secretary of State Madeleine Albright.

Feinstein served as the co-director of the 2002 independent task force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations and Freedom House on Enhancing U.S. Relations with the U.N. He has written widely on national security and foreign policy issues and is a frequent guest commentator on television public affairs programs.

He earned his bachelor’s degree at Vassar, a master’s degree in political science from City University of New York Graduate Center and holds a law degree from Georgetown University. Fluent in Russian and French, Feinstein also studied at the State Pushkin Institute of Russian Language in Moscow.

Other scheduled speakers in this year’s lecture series include:

• March 1 — Jack DuVall, president and founding director of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, Washington, D.C., “The Right to Rise Up: People Power and the Virtues of Civic Disruption.”

• April 4 — John Merrill, chief of the Northeast Asia Division, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, U.S. State Department, “North Korea.”

The “Pariah States and Policy Responses” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

“Axis of Evil” Focus of Opening Address in Lawrence University International Studies Lecture Series

While the country focuses on the continuing struggle to bring democracy to Iraq, Geoffrey Kemp, director of regional strategic programs at the Nixon Center in Washington, D.C., will examine the potential dangers posed by Iran, Syria and Libya in the opening address of Lawrence University’s three-part international studies lecture series “Pariah States and Policy Responses.”

Kemp presents “The Axis of Evil: The Current Membership” Tuesday, Jan. 24 at 7 p.m. in the Wriston Art Center auditorium, 613 E. College Ave., Appleton. The event is free and open to the public.

Kemp will discuss the rationale used by the Bush administration to place Iraq, Iran and North Korea on an “axis of evil” while ignoring other possible candidates such as Syria and Libya. He also will contrast Iran with Libya, a country that has basically received a clean pass by renouncing its weapons of mass destruction program, outline the dilemma the United States and the European Union face in challenging Iran and explain why this is a potentially dangerous confrontation.

Iran has recently drawn the ire of the international community by threatening to block inspections of its nuclear facilities, which Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad — described by Wisconsin U.S. Senator Russ Feingold as “one of the scariest persons in the world” — insist are solely for the production of nuclear energy.

On Jan. 13, Iran Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki said that if his country was confronted by the United Nations Security Council, it would stop cooperating with the U.N. nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency. Iran has been voluntarily allowing short-notice IAEA inspections since 2003.

A native of Great Britain, Kemp began his career as a research associate for the International Institute of Strategic Studies in London before moving to the United States 1967. He worked in the U.S. Defense Department’s Policy Planning and Program Analysis and Evaluation offices in the 1970s, contributing to studies on U.S. security policy and options for Southwest Asia. In 1981, he joined the first Reagan administration, serving in the White House as a special assistant to the president for national security affairs and senior director for Near East and South Asian Affairs on the National Security Council Staff.

Prior to joining the Nixon Center in 1995, Kemp was a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace where he served as director of the Middle East Arms Control Project.

He is the author of numerous articles on foreign policy challenges, particularly those in the Middle East, including “Forever Enemies? American Policy and the Islamic Republic of Iran,” “Europe, Iraq and the War on Terrorism,” and “Stopping the Iranian Bomb” which appeared in The National Interest in 2003.

Kemp earned his bachelor and master’s degrees from Oxford University and holds a Ph.D. In political science from M.I.T.

Other scheduled speakers in this year’s lecture series include:

• February 21— Lee Feinstein, deputy director of studies and senior fellow for U.S. Foreign Policy and International Law, Council on Foreign Relations, Washington, D.C, “A Duty to Prevent.”

• March 1 — Jack DuVall, president and founding director of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, Washington, D.C., “The Right to Rise Up: People Power and the Virtues of Civic Disruption.”

The “Pariah States and Policy Responses” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

Columbia University Political Scientist Discusses Status, Implications of New European Constitution in Lawrence University International Studies Series Lecture

The status of a new European Union constitution, the angst over France’s perceived reluctance to ratify it and the ramifications for its adoption on relations with the United States will be discussed in the final installment of Lawrence University’s international studies lecture series “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices.”

John Huber, a 1984 Lawrence graduate, professor of political science at Columbia University and faculty fellow at the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy, the research arm of the social sciences at Columbia, presents “France, the European Constitution and its Implications for the Transatlantic Alliance” Monday, May 9 at 7 p.m. in Science Hall, Room 102 on the Lawrence campus. The event is free and open to the public.

On May 29, France will hold a nation-wide referendum on the new European Union constitution (treaty), which all member countries must ratify for it to take effect. There is growing concern that France will not ratify the constitution because its citizens are against it, leading some experts to predict dire consequences if that happens, including those who argue France’s rejection could lead to the demise of the EU itself.

Huber will provide an overview of the key elements of the constitution, explain why it appears the French will reject the constitution when they have been such a driving force in creating it and discuss whether it will even matter if they do vote “no.”

In his address, Huber will argue that it is in the best interest of the French to adopt the EU constitution. Based on public opinion data, Huber says the French have a great deal of confidence in the EU, in fact they trust it more than their own government and are not worried it will diminish national autonomy or threaten French national identity. The concerns, according to Huber, are related to issues of unemployment, globalization and the fear that a new EU constitution will enable jobs to leave France for low-wage countries within the EU.

As for relations with the United States, Huber believes uncertainty in institution-building within the EU will further erode U.S.-EU relations. As it moves to address the concerns of its own citizens, the EU will become more protectionist, placing additional strain on EU-U.S. trade relations. Without a new constitution, the EU will have a difficult time forging common foreign and defense policies, which will make it easier for the United States to adopt foreign policy decisions that divide the member states of the EU and lead to increased contempt of many citizens in Europe towards the United States.

Huber is co-author of the book “Deliberate Discretion? Institutional Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy,” which develops a comparative theory of delegation in advanced democracies and wrote 1996’s “Rationalizing Parliament: Legislative Institutions and Party Politics in France,” which received honorable mention honors for the Gregory Luebbert Prize, which is awarded for the best book in comparative politics.

His writing also has been recognized with the Heinz Eulau Award by the American Political Science Association for his article “Restrictive Legislative Procedures in France and the U.S.” and the Georges Lavau Prize from the French Politics and Society Group of the APSA, which honors the best dissertation on French politics. Among his current research interests are individual turnover among cabinet ministers in parliamentary democracies and the impact of legal structure on policy-making venues.

Huber joined the Columbia political science department in 1998 and spent the 2002-03 academic year as a senior visiting research fellow at Princeton University’s Center for the Study of Democratic Politics. He also taught at the University of Michigan for six years and spent the 1991-92 academic year in the political science department at Ohio State University.

The “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

From Me to We: Lawrence University International Relations Lecture Series Address Looks at Youth Attitudes About Politics

Harvard University political scientist David King says today’s young Americans are engaged in politics and their communities in a way unseen in years, indicating a definite shift from the “me” generation to the “we” generation.

King, the associate director of the Institute of Politics and lecturer in public policy at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, politically profiles today’s youth in the third installment of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices.”

A 1985 Lawrence graduate, King returns to campus Thursday, April 21 to deliver the address “The Activism and Optimism of American Youth: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy” at 7 p.m. in Science Hall, Room 102 on the Lawrence campus. The event is free and open to the public.

Based on the findings of a recent survey he conducted, King will provide a description of the complex political ideology of today’s youth, a profile that does not easily break along the lines of liberal or conservative but rather offers clear secular and religious divisions. He also will discuss young people’s attitudes toward U.S. foreign policy and the way they view the role of America as the chief architect of democracy around the world.

A government major at Lawrence, King joined the Kennedy School faculty in 1992 after earning his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Michigan. His research interests include youth attitudes and political engagement, legislative institutions and U.S. political parties and interest groups.

He co-authored the 2003 book “The Generation of Trust: How the U.S. Military has Regained the Public’s Confidence since Vietnam” and wrote “Turf Wars: How Congressional Committees Claim Jurisdiction,” which was published in 1997. He oversees Harvard’s Program for Newly Elected Members of the U.S. Congress and served as chair of the Task Force on Election Administration on behalf of former presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter.

The “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

Former Ambassador Discusses Eastern Europe’s “Unfinished Business” in Lawrence University International Relations Series Lecture

David Swartz, who served as the United States’ first ambassador to the then-newly independent Republic of Belarus, reviews the political strides that have been made and the work that remains in Eastern Europe in the second address of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices.”

Swartz, who spent the 1997-98 academic year on the Lawrence faculty as the Stephen Edward Scarff Memorial Visiting Professor, presents “Unfinished Business in Eastern Europe: The Role of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)” Wednesday, April 13 at 7 p.m. in Science Hall, Room 102 on the Lawrence campus. The event is free and open to the public.

In 1975, representatives of 35 nations gathered in Helsinki as members of a unique forum created to promote political, economic and scientific cooperation and reduce tensions across the then-Iron Curtain. That “conference” eventually evolved into the 55-member Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Since its founding, the OSCE has been actively engaged in all of the sweeping geopolitical transformations that have occurred in the Eurasian region during the past 30 years. In his address, Swartz will outline the role the OSCE is still playing today in trying to resolve some of the issues — both structural and issue/region specific — that remain in Eastern Europe.

Among the issues he will discuss are the severe economic disparities that exist between the eastern countries and the West and which is fueling significant migrations of people from east to west in search of jobs and prosperity, as well as drug trafficking and illicit and destabilizing arms trafficking.

Other topics Swartz will examine involve “hot spots” throughout the area where unresolved conflicts remain, including Bosnia and Kosovo in the Balkans, Moldova/Transnistria in the Black Sea region, Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia/Abkhazia in the Caucasus and Chechnya.

Swartz served nearly 29 years in the U. S. Foreign Service before retiring in 1995. A specialist in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, he served in a variety of positions at U.S. missions in Moscow, Kiev and Warsaw. In 1992, President Bush nominated him to become the first U.S. ambassador to the newly independent Republic of Belarus, where he served until 1994.
Swartz’s Washington assignments included service as the first staff director of the U.S. Nuclear Risk Reduction Center, senior inspector in the State Department Office of Inspector General and dean of the School of Language Studies, Foreign Service Institute.

In 1996, Swartz established and still directs the European Humanities University Foundation, which promotes private higher education in Belarus. At the request of the State Department, he spent two years (2001-03) as Head of the Mission of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe to Moldova, the poorest nation in Europe and the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president (2001).

A native of Chicago, Swartz earned his bachelor’s degree in history and political science at Southwestern College and his master’s degree in Soviet and East European Area Studies from Florida State University.

The “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

Address on U.S.-European Security Issues Opens Lawrence University International Studies Lecture Series

On the heels of President Bush’s recent (Feb. 20) trip to Brussels to meet with European leaders, Esther Brimmer, a specialist in transatlantic political and security affairs, will discuss the strategic issues and challenges facing the United States and its European allies in the opening address of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices.”

Brimmer, deputy director of the Center for Transatlantic Relations at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, presents “New Dimensions in U.S./European Security Relations” Monday, Feb. 28 at 7 p.m. in Science Hall, Room 102 on the Lawrence campus. The event is free and open to the public.

With the end of the Cold War, today’s major transatlantic security issues have shifted from guarding European territory to addressing global issues such as democracy, human rights, economic globalization, terrorism, weapons proliferation and environmental degradation. Brimmer will share her perspective on how well the transatlantic community is prepared to address these “new” security questions. She also will speak on whether the Bush administration and the European Union have a shared strategic outlook and if it is in the United States’ best interest for the European Union to have a larger role in international security.

During her distinguished international career, Brimmer has worked in the Office of Policy Planning at the U.S. Department of State, focusing on the European Union, Western Europe, the United Nations and multilateral security issues and served on the U. S. delegation to the U.N. Commission on Human Rights. She spent four years as a senior associate at the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict and worked on the U.N., peace-keeping, human rights and political-military issues as a special assistant to the Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs from 1993-1995. Brimmer earned her master’s and Ph.D. degrees in international relations from the University of Oxford.

Other scheduled speakers in this year’s lecture series include:

• April 13 — David Swartz, former U.S. ambassador to Belarus and chief of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Mission to Moldova, “Unfinished Business in Eastern Europe: The Role of the OSCE.”

• April 21 — David King, associate director of the Institute of Politics and lecturer in public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, “The Activism and Optimism of American Youth: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy.”

• May 9 — John Huber, professor of political science and director of graduate studies at Columbia University, “U.S. and French Perspectives on Foreign Policy Issues.”

The “U.S. and European Security: Challenges and Choices” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of long-time Lawrence government professor Mojmir Povolny, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.

Political Systems Expert Discusses Democratization of China in Lawrence University Address

Minxin Pei, senior associate and director of the China Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, D.C., discusses China’s current economic transition and explores the possibility of the country’s democratization in a comparative perspective in the third installment of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series, “Democracy, Development and Human Rights.”

Pei presents “Democratizing China: Lessons from East Asia” Wednesday, April 14 at 7 p.m. in the Wriston Art Center auditorium on the Lawrence campus. The event is free and open to the public.

Drawing upon other recent transitions in the area — the gradual reform that marked Taiwan’s experience, the authoritarian collapse that precipitated change in the Philippines and Indonesia as well as the Thailand and South Korea models where change was both slow and crisis-induced — Pei will provide some context as to what extent China’s future political transition, if it happens at all, will resemble the experience of its neighbors. Pei calls China “a test case” for the validity of various theories of democratization in general and the theory linking economic development to democratization in particular.

A specialist in the development of democratic political systems and the politics of economic reform, Pei is the author of the forthcoming book, “China’s Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy” as well as the 1994 book “From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union.”

In addition, Pei contributes regularly to a wide range of professional journals, including “Foreign Policy,” “Foreign Affairs,” “China Quarterly” and “Journal of Democracy,” among others.

A former professor of politics at Princeton University, Pei has been recognized with numerous honors and awards, among them the Robert S. MacNamara Fellowship of the World Bank and the Hoover Institution’s National Fellowship. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard University.

Progress on Human Rights Goals in Newly Independent African, Caribbean Countries Focus of Lawrence University Lecture

The success of former European colonies in Africa and the Caribbean that earned their independence in the 1950s and ’60s in reaching stated goals on matters of civil liberties, economic justice and educational and social access for the masses will be examined in the second installment of Lawrence University’s four-part international studies lecture series “Democracy, Development and Human Rights.”

John McCartney, associate professor of government and law at Lafayette College, presents “The Struggle for Human Rights in Africa and the Caribbean,” Thursday, Feb. 26 at 7 p.m. in the Wriston Art Center auditorium on the Lawrence campus. The event is free and open to the public.

A scholar of African politics, Latin America and the Caribbean, McCartney will discuss the United Nations’ 1948 “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” which recognized the importance of civil and political rights, as well as the “economic, social and cultural rights for the dignity and free development of the personality of the individual.” Using selected case studies, McCartney will illustrate the successes and failures of several decolonized African and Caribbean nations that have attempted to live up to the U.N. guidelines as newly independent states.

In addition, McCartney will speculate on the future of human rights in Africa and the Caribbean and address the question of whether human rights are synonymous with Western democratic rights.

Before joining the Lafayette faculty in 1986, McCartney spent six years as the president of the Vanguard Party, a social democratic political party in the Bahamas. He began his academic career as a member of the political science department at Purdue University. He is the author of the book, “Black Power Ideologies” and co-wrote the book “The Struggle for Freedom in the Bahamas.” McCartney earned his doctorate in political theory at the University of Iowa.

The “Democracy, Development and Human Rights” lecture series is sponsored by the Mojmir Povolny Lectureship in International Studies. Named in honor of Lawrence’s long time professor of government, the lectureship promotes interest and discussion on issues of moral significance and ethical dimensions.